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Research Topic-Cytochrome B5

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Research Topic- Cytochrome B5

  1. Obligatory role of cytochrome b5 in the microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane.PubMed

    Canova-Davis, E; Chiang, J Y; Waskell, L


    Cytochrome b5 has recently been shown to be required in the reconstituted cytochrome P-450 system for the metabolism of the volatile anesthetic methoxyflurane [E. Canova-Davis and L. A. Waskell, J. biol. Chem. 259, 2541 (1984)]. To determine whether this observation in the reconstituted system was merely dependent on the particular ratios of the various components or some other fortuitous, unknown factor, or whether cytochrome b5 plays a role in the liver microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane, the following studies were undertaken. Antibody to rabbit holocytochrome b5 was raised in guinea pigs. The antibody to cytochrome b5 was able to inhibit 75% of the microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane. This same antibody also inhibited methoxyflurane metabolism in the reconstituted system. When the antibody to cytochrome b5 was treated with purified cytochrome b5 before addition to the microsomes, it did not inhibit methoxyflurane metabolism. Furthermore, the antibody to cytochrome b5 did not inhibit the microsomal metabolism of benzphetamine. This suggests that cytochrome b5 was required for the microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane. It is possible that cytochrome b5 functioned in the metabolism of methoxyflurane by retaining a specific conformation of cytochrome P-450 and not by transferring the second electron to cytochrome P-450. To explore this possibility, cytochrome b5 was reconstituted with Mn3+-protoporphyrin IX. The Mn3+-protoporphyrin IX derivative retained the conformation of cytochrome b5 but not its electron transfer properties. This manganese derivative of cytochrome b5 was unable to stimulate the metabolism of methoxyflurane. The study demonstrated that cytochrome b5 was obligatory for the microsomal metabolism of methoxyflurane, whereas it was not required for the microsomal N-demethylation of benzphetamine. Moreover, the heme moiety of cytochrome b5 functioned to transfer electrons in this reaction.

  2. Reductive Detoxication of Arylhydroxylamine Carcinogens by Human NADH Cytochrome b5 Reductase and Cytochrome b5PubMed Central

    Kurian, Joseph R.; Chin, Nathaniel A.; Longlais, Brett J.; Hayes, Kristie L.; Trepanier, Lauren A.


    Heterocyclic and aromatic amine carcinogens are thought to lead to tumor initiation via the formation of DNA adducts, and bioactivation to arylhydroxylamine metabolites is necessary for reactivity with DNA. Carcinogenic arylhydroxylamine metabolites are cleared by a microsomal, NADH-dependent, oxygen-insensitive reduction pathway in humans, which may be a source of inter-individual variability in response to aromatic amine carcinogens. The purpose of this study was to characterize the identity of this reduction pathway in human liver. Based on our findings with structurally similar arylhydroxylamine metabolites of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesized that the reductive detoxication of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens was catalyzed by NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (cyt b5). We found that reduction of the carcinogenic hydroxylamines of the aromatic amine 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP; found in cigarette smoke) and the heterocyclic amine 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5b] pyridine (PhIP; found in grilled meats) was indeed catalyzed by a purified system containing only human b5R and cyt b5. Specific activities were 56 to 346-fold higher in the purified system compared to human liver microsomes (HLM), with similar Michaelis-Menten constants (Km values) in both systems. The stoichiometry for b5R and cyt b5 that yielded the highest activity in the purified system was also similar to that found in native HLM (∼1:8 to 1:10). Polyclonal antisera to either b5R or cyt b5 significantly inhibited N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl (NHOH-4-ABP) reduction by 95 and 89%, respectively, and immunoreactive cyt b5 protein content in individual HLM was significantly correlated with individual reduction of both NHOH-4-ABP and N-hydroxy-PhIP (NHOH-PhIP). Finally, titration of HLM into the purified b5R/cyt b5 system did not enhance the efficiency of reduction activity. We conclude that b5R and cyt b5 are together solely capable of the reduction of arylhydroxylamine carcinogens

  3. Defining the in Vivo Role for cytochrome b5 in cytochrome P450 function through the conditional hepatic deletion of microsomal cytochrome b5.PubMed

    Finn, Robert D; McLaughlin, Lesley A; Ronseaux, Sebastien; Rosewell, Ian; Houston, J Brian; Henderson, Colin J; Wolf, C Roland


    In vitro, cytochrome b5 modulates the rate of cytochrome P450-dependent mono-oxygenation reactions. However, the role of this enzyme in determining drug pharmacokinetics in vivo and the consequential effects on drug absorption distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity are unclear. In order to resolve this issue, we have carried out the conditional deletion of microsomal cytochrome b5 in the liver to create the hepatic microsomal cytochrome b5 null mouse. These mice develop and breed normally and have no overt phenotype. In vitro studies using a range of substrates for different P450 enzymes showed that in hepatic microsomal cytochrome b5 null NADH-mediated metabolism was essentially abolished for most substrates, and the NADPH-dependent metabolism of many substrates was reduced by 50-90%. This reduction in metabolism was also reflected in the in vivo elimination profiles of several drugs, including midazolam, metoprolol, and tolbutamide. In the case of chlorzoxazone, elimination was essentially unchanged. For some drugs, the pharmacokinetics were also markedly altered; for example, when administered orally, the maximum plasma concentration for midazolam was increased by 2.5-fold, and the clearance decreased by 3.6-fold in hepatic microsomal cytochrome b5 null mice. These data indicate that microsomal cytochrome b5 can play a major role in the in vivo metabolism of certain drugs and chemicals but in a P450- and substrate-dependent manner.

  4. Absence of sugars in electrophoretically purified cytochrome b5 demonstrated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometryPubMed Central



    The problem of determining small but significant amounts of carbohydrates, in purified proteins, has been studied using the membrane protein, cytochrome b5. A newly developed method that involves direct gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of sugars obtained by hydrolysis of proteins purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) allows the identification and determination of small amounts of carbohydrates (e.g., 20 micrograms of glycoprotein containing a minimum of 0.1% monosaccharide), even in the presence of relatively high amounts of impurities. Application of this method to cytochrome b5 fragments obtained by tryptic digestion from rat liver microsomes and purified by combined gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, followed by SDS PAGE, has consistently yielded values below 0.07 mol of the individual sugars and aminosugars per mole cytochrome b5. It is concluded that cytochrome b5, at least its trypsin-released major amino- terminal fragment, is not constitutively glycosylated. PMID:7251667

  5. Cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase: genotype-phenotype correlations for hydroxylamine reduction.PubMed

    Sacco, James C; Trepanier, Lauren A


    NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (b5) catalyze the reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA), which can contribute to sulfonamide hypersensitivity, to the parent drug sulfamethoxazole. Variability in hydroxylamine reduction could thus play a role in adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to characterize variability in SMX-HA reduction in 111 human livers, and investigate its association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in b5 and b5R cDNA. Liver microsomes were assayed for SMX-HA reduction activity, and b5 and b5R expression was semiquantified by immunoblotting. The coding regions of the b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3) genes were resequenced. Hepatic SMX-HA reduction displayed a 19-fold range of individual variability (0.06-1.11 nmol/min/mg protein), and a 17-fold range in efficiency (Vmax/Km) among outliers. SMX-HA reduction was positively correlated with b5 and b5R protein content (P<0.0001, r=0.42; P=0.01, r=0.23, respectively), and expression of both proteins correlated with one another (P<0.0001; r=0.74). A novel cSNP in CYB5A (S5A) was associated with very low activity and protein expression. Two novel CYB5R3 SNPs, R59H and R297H, displayed atypical SMX-HA reduction kinetics and decreased SMX-HA reduction efficiency. These studies indicate that although novel cSNPs in CYB5A and CYB5R3 are associated with significantly altered protein expression and/or hydroxylamine reduction activities, these low-frequency cSNPs seem to only minimally impact overall observed phenotypic variability. Work is underway to characterize polymorphisms in other regions of these genes to further account for individual variability in hydroxylamine reduction.

  6. A role for cytochrome b5 in the in vivo disposition of anti-cancer and cytochrome P450 probe drugs in micePubMed Central

    Henderson, Colin J.; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; Kapelyukh, Yury; Wolf, C. Roland


    The role of microsomal cytochrome b5 (Cyb5) in defining the rate of drug metabolism and disposition has been intensely debated for several decades. Recently we described mouse models involving the hepatic or global deletion of Cyb5, demonstrating its central role in in vivo drug disposition. We have now used the cytochrome b5 complete null (BCN) model to determine the role of Cyb5 in the metabolism of ten pharmaceuticals metabolised by a range of cytochrome P450s, including five anti-cancer drugs, in vivo and in vitro. The extent to which metabolism was significantly affected by the absence of Cyb5 was substrate-dependent, with AUC increased (75-245%), and clearance decreased (35-72%), for phenacetin, metoprolol and chlorzoxazone. Tolbutamide disposition was not significantly altered by Cyb5 deletion, while for midazolam clearance was decreased by 66%. The absence of Cyb5 had no effect on gefitinib and paclitaxel disposition, while significant changes in the in vivo pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide were measured (Cmax and terminal half-life increased 55% and 40%, respectively), tamoxifen (AUClast and Cmax increased 370% and 233%, respectively) and anastrozole (AUC and terminal half-life increased 125% and 62%, respectively; clearance down 80%). These data from provide strong evidence that both hepatic and extra-hepatic Cyb5 levels are an important determinant of in vivo drug disposition catalysed by a range of cytochrome P450s, including currently-prescribed anti-cancer agents, and that individuality in Cyb5 expression could be a significant determinant in rates of drug disposition in man. PMID:24115751

  7. Methoxyflurane acts at the substrate binding site of cytochrome P450 LM2 to induce a dependence on cytochrome b5.PubMed

    Lipka, J J; Waskell, L A


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    Rabbit cytochrome P450 isozyme 2 requires cytochrome b5 to metabolize the volatile anesthetic methoxyflurane but not the substrate benzphetamine [E. Canova-Davis and L. Waskell (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 2541-2546]. To determine whether the requirement for cytochrome b5 for methoxyflurane oxidation is mediated by an allosteric effect on cytochrome P450 LM2 or cytochrome P450 reductase, we have investigated whether this anesthetic can induce a role for cytochrome b5 in benzphetamine metabolism. Using rabbit liver microsomes and antibodies raised in guinea pigs against rabbit cytochrome b5, we found that methoxyflurane did not create a cytochrome b5 requirement for benzphetamine metabolism. Methoxyflurane also failed to induce a role for cytochrome b5 in benzphetamine metabolism in the purified, reconstituted mixed function oxidase system. Studies of the reaction kinetics established that in the absence of cytochrome b5, methoxyflurane and benzphetamine are competitive inhibitors, and that in the presence of cytochrome b5, benzphetamine and methoxyflurane are two alternate substrates in competition for a single site on the same enzyme. These results all indicate that the methoxyflurane-induced cytochrome b5 dependence of the mixed function oxidase cytochrome P450 LM2 system is a direct result of the interaction between methoxyflurane and the substrate binding site of cytochrome P450 LM2 and suggest the focus of future studies of this question.

  8. A mutation in yeast mitochondrial DNA results in a precise excision of the terminal intron of the cytochrome b gene.PubMed

    Hill, J; McGraw, P; Tzagoloff, A


    The yeast nuclear gene CBP2 was previously proposed to code for a protein necessary for processing of the terminal intron in the cytochrome b pre-mRNA (McGraw, P., and Tzagoloff, A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 9459-9468). In the present study we describe a mitochondrial mutation capable of suppressing the respiratory deficiency of cbp2 mutants. The mitochondrial suppressor mutation has been shown to be the result of a precise excision of the last intervening sequence from the cytochrome b gene. Strains with the altered mitochondrial DNA have normal levels of mature cytochrome b mRNA and of cytochrome b and exhibit wild type growth on glycerol. These results confirm that CBP2 codes for a protein specifically required for splicing of the cytochrome b intron and further suggest that absence of the intervening sequence does not noticeably affect the expression of respiratory function in mitochondria.

  9. Study of the individual cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase domains of Ncb5or reveals a unique heme pocket and a possible role of the CS domain.PubMed

    Deng, Bin; Parthasarathy, Sudharsan; Wang, WenFang; Gibney, Brian R; Battaile, Kevin P; Lovell, Scott; Benson, David R; Zhu, Hao


    NADH cytochrome b(5) oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) is found in animals and contains three domains similar to cytochrome b(5) (b(5)), CHORD-SGT1 (CS), and cytochrome b(5) reductase (b(5)R). Ncb5or has an important function, as suggested by the diabetes and lipoatrophy phenotypes in Ncb5or null mice. To elucidate the structural and functional properties of human Ncb5or, we generated its individual b(5) and b(5)R domains (Ncb5or-b(5) and Ncb5or-b(5)R, respectively) and compared them with human microsomal b(5) (Cyb5A) and b(5)R (Cyb5R3). A 1.25 Ã… x-ray crystal structure of Ncb5or-b(5) reveals nearly orthogonal planes of the imidazolyl rings of heme-ligating residues His(89) and His(112), consistent with a highly anisotropic low spin EPR spectrum. Ncb5or is the first member of the cytochrome b(5) family shown to have such a heme environment. Like other b(5) family members, Ncb5or-b(5) has two helix-loop-helix motifs surrounding heme. However, Ncb5or-b(5) differs from Cyb5A with respect to location of the second heme ligand (His(112)) and of polypeptide conformation in its vicinity. Electron transfer from Ncb5or-b(5)R to Ncb5or-b(5) is much less efficient than from Cyb5R3 to Cyb5A, possibly as a consequence of weaker electrostatic interactions. The CS linkage probably obviates the need for strong interactions between b(5) and b(5)R domains in Ncb5or. Studies with a construct combining the Ncb5or CS and b(5)R domains suggest that the CS domain facilitates docking of the b(5) and b(5)R domains. Trp(114) is an invariant surface residue in all known Ncb5or orthologs but appears not to contribute to electron transfer from the b(5)R domain to the b(5) domain.

  10. The identification of the heat-stable microsomal protein required for methoxyflurane metabolism as cytochrome b5.PubMed

    Canova-Davis, E; Waskell, L


    Methoxyflurane is an anesthetic whose metabolism by cytochrome P-450LM2 has been shown to be dependent upon a heat-stable microsomal protein (Canova-Davis, E., and Waskell, L. A. (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 108, 1264-1270). Treatment of this protein with diethylpyrocarbonate, which modifies selected amino acids, caused a dose-dependent loss in its ability to effect the metabolism of methoxyflurane by purified cytochrome P-450LM2. This protein factor has been identified as cytochrome b5 by demonstrating that cytochrome b5 and the heat-stable factor coelute during cytochrome b5 purification. Neither ferriheme nor apocytochrome b5 was able to substitute for the activating factor, while cytochrome b5 reconstituted from apocytochrome b5 and heme exhibited an activity similar to that of native b5. Examination of the cytochrome b5 molecule by computer graphics suggested that diethylpyrocarbonate did not inactivate b5 by reacting with the anionic surface of the cytochrome b5 molecule. Maximal rates of methoxyflurane metabolism were obtained at a ratio of 1:1:1 of the three proteins, cytochrome P-450LM2:reductase:cytochrome b5. In summary, it has been demonstrated that the heat-stable protein, cytochrome b5, is obligatory for the metabolism of methoxyflurane by cytochrome P-450LM2. These data also suggest that cytochrome b5 may be acting as an electron donor to P-450LM2 in the O-demethylation of methoxyflurane.

  11. Cytochrome b5 reductase is the component from neuronal synaptic plasma membrane vesicles that generates superoxide anion upon stimulation by cytochrome c.PubMed

    Samhan-Arias, Alejandro K; Fortalezas, Sofia; Cordas, Cristina M; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G; Gutierrez-Merino, Carlos


    In this work, we measured the effect of cytochrome c on the NADH-dependent superoxide anion production by synaptic plasma membrane vesicles from rat brain. In these membranes, the cytochrome c stimulated NADH-dependent superoxide anion production was inhibited by antibodies against cytochrome b 5 reductase linking the production to this enzyme. Measurement of the superoxide anion radical generated by purified recombinant soluble and membrane cytochrome b 5 reductase corroborates the production of the radical by different enzyme isoforms. In the presence of cytochrome c, a burst of superoxide anion as well as the reduction of cytochrome c by cytochrome b 5 reductase was measured. Complex formation between both proteins suggests that cytochrome b 5 reductase is one of the major partners of cytochrome c upon its release from mitochondria to the cytosol during apoptosis. Superoxide anion production and cytochrome c reduction are the consequences of the stimulated NADH consumption by cytochrome b 5 reductase upon complex formation with cytochrome c and suggest a major role of this enzyme as an anti-apoptotic protein during cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of cytochrome b(5) Phe35 mutants with cytochrome c, plastocyanin and inorganic complexes.PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Wang, Yun-Hua; Sun, Bing-Yun; Xie, Yi; Hirota, Shun; Yamauchi, Osamu; Huang, Zhong-Xian


    To illustrate the functions of the aromatic residue Phe35 of cytochrome b(5) and to give further insight into the roles of the Phe35-containing hydrophobic patch and/or aromatic channel of cytochrome b(5), we studied electron transfer reactions of cytochrome b(5) and its Phe35Tyr and Phe35Leu variants with cytochrome c, with the wild-type and Tyr83Phe and Tyr83Leu variants of plastocyanin, and with the inorganic complexes [Fe(EDTA)](-), [Fe(CDTA)](-) and [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+). The changes at Phe35 of cytochrome b(5) and Tyr83 of plastocyanin do not affect the second-order rate constants for the electron transfer reactions. These results show that the invariant aromatic residues and aromatic patch/channel are not essential for electron transfer in these systems.

  13. Contribution of Electrostatics to the Kinetics of Electron Transfer from NADH-Cytochrome b5 Reductase to Fe(III)-Cytochrome b5.PubMed

    Kollipara, Sireesha; Tatireddy, Shivakishore; Pathirathne, Thusitha; Rathnayake, Lasantha K; Northrup, Scott H


    Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations provide here a theoretical atomic-level treatment of the reduction of human ferric cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) by NADH-cytochrome b5 reductaste (cyt b5r) and several of its mutants. BD is used to calculate the second-order rate constant of electron transfer (ET) between the proteins for direct correlation with experiments. Interestingly, the inclusion of electrostatic forces dramatically increases the reaction rate of the native proteins despite the overall negative charge of both proteins. The role played by electrostatic charge distribution in stabilizing the ET complexes and the role of mutations of several amino acid residues in stabilizing or destabilizing the complexes are analyzed. The complex with the shortest ET reaction distance (d = 6.58 Ã…) from rigid body BD is further subjected to 1 ns of molecular dynamics (MD) in a periodic box of TIP3P water to produce a more stable complex allowed by flexibility and with a shorter average reaction distance d = 6.02 Ã…. We predict a docking model in which the following ion-ion interactions are dominant (cyt b5r/cyt b5): Lys162-Heme O1D/Lys163-Asp64/Arg91-Heme O1A/Lys125-Asp70.

  14. SPR and electrochemical analyses of interactions between CYP3A4 or 3A5 and cytochrome b5NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedenko, O. V.; Yablokov, E. O.; Usanov, S. A.; Mukha, D. V.; Sergeev, G. V.; Bulko, T. V.; Kuzikov, A. V.; Moskaleva, N. E.; Shumyantseva, V. V.; Ivanov, A. S.; Archakov, A. I.


    The combination of SPR biosensor with electrochemical analysis was used for the study of protein-protein interaction between cytochromes CYP3A4 or 3А5 and cytochromes b5: the microsomal, mitochondrial forms of this protein, and 2 ≪chimeric≫ proteins. Kinetic constants of CYP3A4 and CYP3А5 complex formation with cytochromes b5 were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was observed upon their interactions with mitochondrial cytochrome b5. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and cytochromes b5 immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 to -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl).

  15. OnpA, an Unusual Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase Containing a Cytochrome b5 DomainPubMed Central

    Xiao, Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Dai, Hui; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Hong; Tang, Huiru; Leak, David J.


    ortho-Nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase (EC from Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215 catalyzes monooxygenation of ortho-nitrophenol to form catechol via ortho-benzoquinone. Sequence analysis of this onpA-encoded enzyme revealed that it contained a flavin-binding monooxygenase domain and a heme-binding cytochrome b5 domain. OnpA was purified to homogeneity as a His-tagged protein and was considered a monomer, as determined by gel filtration. FAD and heme were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) as cofactors in this enzyme, and quantitative analysis indicated that 1 mol of the purified recombinant OnpA contained 0.66 mol of FAD and 0.20 mol of heme. However, the enzyme activity of OnpA was increased by 60% and 450% after addition of FAD and hemin, respectively, suggesting that the optimal stoichiometry was 1:1:1. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed that two highly conserved histidines located in the cytochrome b5 domain were associated with binding of the heme, and the cytochrome b5 domain was involved in the OnpA activity. These results indicate that OnpA is an unusual FAD-dependent monooxygenase containing a fused cytochrome b5 domain that is essential for its activity. Therefore, we here demonstrate a link between cytochrome b5 and flavin-dependent monooxygenases. PMID:22267507

  16. A Protein Structure Initiative Approach to Expression, Purification, and In Situ Delivery of Human Cytochrome b5 to Membrane Vesicles†PubMed Central

    Sobrado, Pablo; Goren, Michael A.; James, Declan; Amundson, Carissa K.; Fox, Brian G.


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    A specialized vector backbone from the Protein Structure Initiative was used to express full-length human cytochrome b5 as a C-terminal fusion to His8-maltose binding protein in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein could be completely cleaved by tobacco etch virus protease, and a yield of ~18 mg of purified full-length human cytochrome b5 per liter of culture medium was obtained (2.3 mg per]of wet weight bacterial cells). In situ proteolysis of the fusion protein in the presence of chemically defined synthetic liposomes allowed facile spontaneous delivery of the functional peripheral membrane protein into a defined membrane environment without prior exposure to detergents or other lipids. The utility of this approach as a delivery method for production and incorporation of monotopic (peripheral) membrane proteins is discussed. PMID:18226920

  17. A Protein Structure Initiative approach to expression, purification, and in situ delivery of human cytochrome b5 to membrane vesicles.PubMed

    Sobrado, Pablo; Goren, Michael A; James, Declan; Amundson, Carissa K; Fox, Brian G


    A specialized vector backbone from the Protein Structure Initiative was used to express full-length human cytochrome b5 as a C-terminal fusion to His8-maltose binding protein in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein could be completely cleaved by tobacco etch virus protease, and a yield of approximately 18 mg of purified full-length human cytochrome b5 per liter of culture medium was obtained (2.3mg per g of wet weight bacterial cells). In situ proteolysis of the fusion protein in the presence of chemically defined synthetic liposomes allowed facile spontaneous delivery of the functional peripheral membrane protein into a defined membrane environment without prior exposure to detergents or other lipids. The utility of this approach as a delivery method for production and incorporation of monotopic (peripheral) membrane proteins is discussed.

  18. Haloarcula marismortui cytochrome b-561 is encoded by the narC gene in the dissimilatory nitrate reductase operon.PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Araya, Osamu; Fujiwara, Taketomo


    The composition of membrane-bound electron-transferring proteins from denitrifying cells of Haloarcula marismortui was compared with that from the aerobic cells. Accompanying nitrate reductase catalytic NarGH subcomplex, cytochrome b-561, cytochrome b-552, and halocyanin-like blue copper protein were induced under denitrifying conditions. Cytochrome b-561 was purified to homogeneity and was shown to be composed of a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The cytochrome was autooxidizable and its redox potential was -27 mV. The N-terminal sequence of the cytochrome was identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the narC gene product encoded in the third ORF of the nitrate reductase operon with a unique arrangement of ORFs. The sequence of the cytochrome was homologous with that of the cytochrome b subunit of respiratory cytochrome bc. A possibility that the cytochrome bc and the NarGH constructed a supercomplex was discussed.

  19. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking cytochrome d terminal oxidase.PubMed Central

    Green, G N; Gennis, R B


    A screening procedure was devised which permitted the isolation of a cytochrome d-deficient mutant by its failure to oxidize the artificial electron donor N,N,N’,N‘-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Cytochrome a1 and probably cytochrome b558 were also missing in the mutant. Growth and oxygen uptake rates were similar for both parent and mutant strains. However, the strain lacking cytochrome d had an increased sensitivity to cyanide, indicating that cytochrome d confers some resistance to this respiratory inhibitor. The gene responsible for these phenotypes has been named cyd and maps between tolA and sucB. PMID:6304009

  20. A Crystal Structure of Classical Swine Fever Virus NS5B Reveals a Novel N-terminal Domain.PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Wu, Baixing; Soca, Wibowo Adian; An, Lei


    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the ringleader of Classical swine fever (CSF). The non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is a key enzyme initiating viral RNA replication by a de novo mechanism. It is also an attractive target for the development of anti-CSFV drugs. To gain a better understanding on the mechanism of CSFV RNA synthesis, here we solved the first crystal structure of CSFV-NS5B. Our studies show that the CSFV-NS5B RdRp contains characteristic fingers, palm domain and thumb domain as well as a unique N-terminal domain (NTD) that had never been observed. Mutagenesis studies on NS5B validated the importance of NTD in the catalytic activity of this novel RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Moreover, our results shed light on the understanding of CSFV infection. IMPORTANCE Pigs are important domestic animal. However, a highly contagious viral disease named Classical swine fever (CSF) causes devastating economic losses. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the primary culprit of CSF, which is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus, Flaviviridae family. Genome replication of CSFV depends on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase known as NS5B. However, the structure of CSFV-NS5B has never been reported, and the mechanism of CSFV replication is poorly understood. Here, we solved the first crystal structure of CSFV-NS5B, analyzed the function of characteristic fingers, palm, and thumb domains. Additionally, our structure also revealed the presence of a novel N-terminal domain (NTD). Biochemical studies demonstrated that the NTD of CSFV-NS5B is very important for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. Collectively, our studies provide a structural basis for future rational design of anti-CSFV drugs which is critically important as no effective anti-CSFV drugs have been developed. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

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